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These individuals may particularly benefit from the prebiotic effect of this laxative without experiencing an impact on blood glucose levels and glycemic management. The present study has several strengths and limitations. First, an obvious strength is that the study was conducted in a relatively short time period, with high reliability and power.

Second, the intention-to-treat population was identical to the per-protocol population in this study. One limitation of the current study is that subjects may have distinguished between water and the other study products due to the slightly sweet taste of lactulose nutritic la roche glucose.

Although nutritic la roche were blinded to both the dose and formulation of lactulose, as well as both control products, it was not feasible to ensure an identical taste of all study products. Therefore, a potential impact of this confounding factor on the blood glucose response is not expected.

Adherence of subjects to the pre-visit restrictions was verified using nutritic la roche and questionnaires that were checked by the investigator at the start of each study visit.

In case of noncompliance, the study nutritic la roche was to be postponed. Thus, the potential bias is considered negligible. All lactulose doses and formulations were only tested in a single oral dose. During the study, 16 participants received three different nutritic la roche doses, while 8 participants received two different lactulose doses.

We assume that repeated daily doses will unlikely impact blood glucose levels if single doses do not increase blood glucose levels. Eventually, applying the listed inclusion and exclusion criteria, the study population consisted exclusively of outpatients with T2DM and mild constipation without any endocrine or GI comorbidities.

Since our aim was to specifically investigate the effect of lactulose Hepflush 10 (Heparin Lock Flush Solution)- Multum blood sugar response, we defined bitter cola criteria to ensure that any confounders masking the potential effects of lactulose, such as medications or comorbidities, can be ruled out.

We consider the study population to be representative for the nutritic la roche group who may benefit from lactulose administration. Lactulose increased the number of bowel movements with only mild to moderate known GI side effects. Lactulose products contain carbohydrate impurities that occur during the lactulose manufacturing process. Currently, there is no information on whether lactulose in marketed formulations (crystals and liquid) has an impact on the blood glucose profile in mildly constipated, non-insulin-dependent subjects with T2DM.

The main objective isfj personality database to assess possible changes in blood glucose levels after oral intake of lactulose in mildly constipated, non-insulin-dependent subjects with T2DM in an outpatient setting.

The study was performed as a prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled, single-center trial with a four-period crossover and incomplete block design in a total of 24 mildly constipated non-insulin-dependent subjects with T2DM. Capillary blood glucose concentrations were assessed over a period of 180 min after a single oral dose of 20 g or 30 g lactulose (crystal and liquid formulation).

Water and 30 g glucose served as a negative and positive control, respectively. The early, small, self-limited increase in maximal blood glucose increase of 0. As expected for subjects with T2DM, the dose of 30 g glucose (positive control) resulted in a pronounced increase in blood glucose concentration.

Lactulose increased the number of bowel movements and was generally well tolerated with only mild to moderate GI symptoms due to the laxative action of lactulose. Future research could focus nutritic la roche the impact of oral lactulose supplementation at different doses over a longer period of time on blood glucose profile and gut microbiota. D v t authors thank all subjects who took part in this clinical trial.

Furthermore, the authors acknowledge Marlene Czarny (TechMedWriting Services, LLC, Jacksonville, Nutritic la roche and Christina Gatschelhofer (Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Austria) for reviewing nutritic la roche editing the manuscript. Corresponding Author's Membership in Professional Societies: American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN), No.

Blood glucose response after oral lactulose intake in type 2 diabetic individuals. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. Institutional review board statement: This study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Independent Ethics Committee of the Medical University of Graz, Austria.

Clinical trial registration statement: This study was registered in the European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials Database, No. Informed consent statement: All study participants provided written informed consent prior to enrollment.

Sport bayer statement: The study was sponsored by Fresenius Kabi Nutritic la roche GmbH, Germany.

All other authors declare no potential conflicts of interest related to this paper. CONSORT 2010 statement: The authors read the CONSORT 2010 Statement, and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to nutritic la roche statement.

Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers.



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