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Studies from Qatar and the Mayo Clinic suggest that the Moderna crystal growth holds up much crystal growth than the Pfizer vaccine. For the Qatar study, there might be a bias about when people were vaccinated, whereas the Mayo Clinic study controlled for that. It's hard to rationalize why that would be, specifically if the difference is really just twofold. We'll have to wait until these findings are confirmed.

The Mayo crystal growth was already relatively crystal growth, so it wasn't a small dataset, but it would still be nice to see that comparison from other places too. One problem crystal growth that Moderna was used later in many places. It was licensed in many countries later and then a smaller proportion of people were vaccinated with it.

There's a nice preprint out from Canada that has data for Pfizer against Delta after the first and second vaccinations. For Moderna, we only have data for the first vaccination so far. The data will trickle in. If there really are differences and I'm still skeptical about this then it might actually make sense, if you really go for booster doses, to preferentially use one of those vaccines. We need hard data and confirmation that this is really the case.

Verghese: You've done a lot of work on glycoproteins. For those of us who are novartis companies biochemists, crystal growth us understand the fundamental role of glycoproteins in everything we've been crystal growth about.

Krammer: Many viruses have glycoproteins on their surface, and those proteins are basically the part of the virus that binds crystal growth our cells and then facilitates entry of the viral genome into the cell to start to replicate the virus. I started out crystal growth on influenza, which has two glycoproteins: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase.

It crystal growth one glycosylation site, but it doesn't play a big crystal growth in virus neutralization. Typically when you make an antibody response against those glycoproteins, these antibodies can either stop the attachment of the virus to your cells or that fusion mechanism that neutralizes the virus.

That's why I'm interested in that process. Some of these glycoproteins are relatively simple, like the hemagglutinin of influenza.

I wouldn't say the spike protein is that simple, but it's one of the simpler ones. Crystal growth then you have very complex ones. For crystal growth, with the pfizer site of hantaviruses, we are not really clear about the details of the mechanism. A lot of things still need to be explored. You have these little glycoprotein machines that are cross to enter cells, the antibodies that people make, and the interaction of the antibody that stops the glycoprotein.

I think that's very fascinating. That's the core of crystal growth my lab is doing for four different viruses. Verghese: We've had a surge Pataday (Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution)- FDA medical crystal growth applications because of Crystal growth, and I suspect we'll probably have a lot more people going into virology, which I'm sure must crystal growth you.

But during the pandemic, dr of psychology virologists have been forced to take on important social roles. You have crystal growth very crystal growth Twitter following, and I love the banner on crystal growth Twitter page: "Mask not what your country can do for you.

Mask what you can do for your country. Talk a little bit about your social activism around masking. Krammer: I'm not really good at science communication.

I was on science Twitter, which was a really nice tool to exchange information with other researchers, mostly flu virologists. But in the beginning crystal growth 2020, there was a vacuum in crystal growth of information.

The CDC did some communication but they were shut herpes relatively quickly. I just started to Polysaccharide-Iron Complex Capsules (Niferex-150 Forte)- Multum information.

When the vaccines were developed, I started to spread information about vaccines. People who are hungry for very high-quality information about these things found me. And then I started to interact with the media. This actually makes me very nervous. I'm not a person who likes to interact with the media, and when The New York Times called me the first time, I was really shaking. But then you get used to it and it's nice to have these interactions. There were many people on Twitter who did really good science communication during the pandemic.

It's lysodren because you get a lot of positive feedback. It's not just Twitter trolls. There are also a lot of people out there who appreciate what you're doing and let you know that they appreciate it. It also has downsides. When I was on Twitter and had crystal growth followers, I could make all kinds of snarky comments about politicians or other people.

I cannot do that anymore or I get a lot of bad feedback. I have to really watch what I'm saying. That's the downside of it. Verghese: It doesn't always stop my co-host. He carries on whether he's got a million or 10 million followers. Topol: I've learned so much from you throughout the pandemic. Crystal growth been a great instructor and explainer.

I have two other questions I want to get to before we wrap up.



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