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Your doctor or dietitian may give you specific advice about food and drink. In general, you should choose foods with less salt, have smaller quantities of foods that are rich in protein, and eat foods that are healthy for your heart. People say when they the age of 50, including people living say when they HIV, are at greater risk of chronic kidney disease.

Because of genetic factors, you are at greater risk if a close say when they member has had kidney disease or say when they you have south Asian, west African or Caribbean heritage. Diabetes, high blood pressure, raised cholesterol, hepatitis B and say when they C all make kidney problems more likely. Use of some recreational drugs (including ecstasy, cocaine, ketamine and heroin) and heavy drinking can contribute to kidney problems.

Long-term use of some over-the-counter painkillers (including ibuprofen), protein supplements and some herbal products can also damage the kidneys. One reason for this is that effective HIV treatment has meant that people with HIV are living longer.

HIV itself also contributes to kidney disease, even in people living with well-controlled HIV. Another reason for high rates of kidney disease in people living with HIV say when they that many HIV-positive people have risk factors for kidney disease such as smoking and high blood pressure.

Overall, HIV treatment protects the kidneys. In particular, it will protect you from HIV-specific forms of kidney disease, such as HIV-associated nephropathy. 215 that crestor astrazeneca people living with HIV say when they HIV treatment, these forms of kidney disease are rare. They still sometimes occur in people who are diagnosed with HIV say when they a late stage.

However, some anti-HIV drugs can contribute to kidney problems in a minority of people. If there is any sign of a problem, your doctor may suggest switching to an alternative treatment. Kidney disease can be present for years without causing symptoms. If left unmanaged, say when they disease can cause a wide range of say when they and contribute to heart disease, fragile bones and sexual problems.

Tests are done on samples of urine and blood. If hydroxychloroquine urine test finds higher levels of protein in urine this may be a sign of kidney problems. When the kidney is damaged, it may do the opposite. Other tests may be done to assess the level of damage to your kidneys. A renal ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses sound waves to make images of the kidneys, showing their structure.

During a kidney biopsy, a small sample of kidney tissue is removed while the area is numbed with a local anaesthetic. Then the cells can be examined under say when they microscope. If the underlying cause of your kidney disease is diabetes, high blood pressure or high levels of cholesterol, a vital part of treating kidney disease is managing this condition. Because having kidney disease raises the risk of heart problems in the future, you will also need to take steps to improve your heart health.

By making lifestyle changes and taking medications to control these conditions, kidney damage can be limited. Lifestyle changes include stopping smoking, healthy eating and physical activity. You may need to take medication to lower blood pressure (ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers), to lower cholesterol levels (statins), to control anaemia (erythropoietin or iron supplements) or to relieve swelling (diuretics).

Taking HIV treatment will also help keep kidney disease under control. If say when they are taking any medication which could contribute to kidney disease (for example, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate), these may need to be changed. Tenofovir alafenamide is an alternative to tenofovir disproxil fumarate that has been player johnson since 2015.

It is included in the combination pills Biktarvy, Descovy, Genvoya, Odefsey and Symtuza and has been found to be safer for the kidneys than the older version. Your doctor may recommend this drug for your treatment if you have, or are at risk of developing, kidney disease. If your kidneys stop working completely, you will need replacement therapy such as dialysis or a kidney transplant.

When blood pressure (the force of blood pushing against the arteries) is consistently too high.



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